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Where do you make your KnowNowᵀᴹ tests?

KnowNowᵀᴹ Tests have been invented, developed and manufactured in the UK.

How is a KnowNowᵀᴹ Test administered?

There are just 4 simple steps to the KnowNowᵀᴹ Test.

  1. Swab the mouth: The KnowNowᵀᴹ Test requires just a saliva sample to be taken easily and comfortably from the mouth. We know how uncomfortable and painful other lateral flow antigen tests or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests can be, with swabs going high into nostrils and all the way back to tonsils. It was really important to us that people would feel happy to take a KnowNow test on a regular basis.
  2. Shake the tube: The saliva swab is placed into a buffer solution in a small tube, and shaken up to mix it well.
  3. Squeeze on panel: A few drops of the mixed solution is squeezed onto the KnowNowᵀᴹ Test device.
  4. Know in 15 minutes: It takes just 15 minutes for the positive or negative result to appear in the test result window on the KnowNowᵀᴹ Test device. No need to wait 24-48 hours for results, as you would with a PCR test.

How specific is the KnowNowᵀᴹ Test?

The KnowNowᵀᴹ Test's specificity is 100%. In more than 700 negative patient saliva samples, it hasn’t returned a single false positive result.

This is so important for getting life back to normal. We don't want anyone to be stopped from going to work, heading off on holiday or socialising at events, when actually it would be perfectly safe for them to do these things.

Specificity is particularly important when disease prevalence is low and tests are intended to be used at enormous scale. For example, if a test with just a 3% false positive rate is used on one million people per day, that would result in 30,000 people per day being falsely identified as infectious with COVID-19 and being unnecessarily asked to self-isolate.

Why does the KnowNowᵀᴹ test use a saliva sample?

We chose to design our unique KnowNowᵀᴹ test for COVID-19 infectiousness to work with a simple saliva sample, so that it would be comfortable and easy to administer, and to ensure that anyone would be happy to take a test every day if required. We believe that patient comfort and happiness leads to increased participation in routine testing, and ultimately increases the probability that COVID positive patients can be detected before they've had a chance to infect others.

The focus of our first clinical study was to assess the feasibility of using saliva sampling, to refine our saliva collection method, and also to assess the overall usability of the KnowNow test. This was a UK Government-supported National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) study carried out across ten UK hospitals with 100 patients participating. Through this study we determined that saliva sampling was both effective and user-friendly, and identified a specific swab for sampling. We chose not to opt for a spit collection method for our saliva sample, as providing a spit sample can be challenging for some patients, particularly the elderly or those suffering with COVID-19 symptoms.

For other COVID-19 tests, throat and nasopharyngeal swabbing is one of the most common types of sample collection. However, a number of studies have explored various issues with these types of sample collection, including:

  • The sample collection method requires a swab to be inserted into the patient's throat and/or far into their nostril and rotated, causing discomfort to patients due to the procedure’s invasiveness, and even inducing bleeding in their tonsils and posterior pharynx. (1)
  • The discomfort or even pain of the sample collection method has a detrimental impact on compliance for serial testing, as patients are unwilling to subject themselves to the test on a regular basis. (2)
  • Nasopharyngeal sample collection presents a considerable risk to healthcare workers, because it can induce patients to sneeze or cough, expelling virus particles. (2)
  • There are several situations where nasopharyngeal swabs would cause particular harm, such as in patients with coagulopathy, those undergoing anticoagulant therapy, or those with significant nasal septum deviation. (3)
  • These tests are not always successful at the first attempt, even though performed by trained healthcare workers, and shortages of swabs and protective equipment are frequently reported. (3)
  • They show relatively poor sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection in early infection and are inconsistent during serial testing. (2)

Some tests have been designed to work with anterior nasal swabs, as a somewhat less invasive alternative to nasopharyngeal swabs. However, there is some evidence to suggest that nasal swab testing produces less sensitive results and may miss patients with lower viral loads (4).

References:

(1) Exploring salivary diagnostics in COVID-19: a scoping review and research suggestions

(2) Saliva is more sensitive for SARS-CoV-2 detection in COVID-19 patients than nasopharyngeal swabs

(3) Saliva as a Candidate for COVID-19 Diagnostic Testing: A Meta-Analysis

(4) Nasal-Swab Testing Misses Patients with Low SARS-CoV-2 Viral Loads

Are there any health risks to or side effects from taking the KnowNowᵀᴹ Test?ᵀ

There are no health risks associated with using the KnowNow test itself, and it is safe to use on all individuals.

Receiving a negative result means that the individual tested does not have any live virus in the sample provided and is not currently infectious to others. However, it's important to be aware that they could still be exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus following the test. It could also be possible that the individual tested has already been exposed to the virus 1 or 2 days ago, and they have not yet become infectious to others.

As a result, we recommend that individuals are tested as regularly as possible to keep workplaces and communities safe. Depending on the scenario, we would recommend testing is repeated every 1 to 3 days.

If this regular testing is combined with mask wearing, hand washing and social distancing, the risk of virus transmission is vastly decreased.

How much space do I need to store the tests?

One box contains 25 tests, and measures 20cm (L) x 21cm (W) x 8cm (H).

The space required depends on how many tests you require at any given time. However, as the KnowNowᵀᴹ Tests can be stored at any temperature between 2 and 30 degrees, special storage facilities should not be required in the UK, unless there is unusually hot weather.

Is it possible to tell if the test has been carried out incorrectly?

Failed KnowNowᵀᴹ Test Result
Failed KnowNowᵀᴹ Test Result

Yes, it will be very clear if the test has been carried out incorrectly and failed.

If there are no lines at all visible in the KnowNowᵀᴹ device test results window, then the test has failed, and it should be repeated with a new device and a fresh saliva sample.

What's the long term vision for Vatic beyond COVID-19?

We’re focused on developing our predictive health technology and tests so that we can make medicine more proactive and help to predict illness before it becomes acute or infectious. We want to empower people to feel in charge of their own health and wellbeing by making testing more readily accessible and available, allowing for earlier prediction and prevention of acute illnesses.

How soon after exposure would the KnowNowᵀᴹ Test give a positive result?

The KnowNowᵀᴹ test will show a positive result from day 3 or 4 after exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This is earlier than other rapid antigen tests, which usually start to show positive results around day 5 or later.

This also means that individuals will receive a positive KnowNowᵀᴹ test 1 or 2 days before they are at very high risk of infecting others. So where there is a regular testing programme in place, individuals can quickly be isolated before they become highly infectious and the spread of the virus can be prevented.

The basis for this is our analysis of models of viral load in disease progression, such as the one shown within "Test sensitivity is secondary to frequency and turnaround time for COVID-19 screening" by Dr Michael Mina et al, alongside the low limit of detection of the KnowNowᵀᴹ test of 50,000 to 200,000 viral copies per mL.

Is there a limit to how frequently I can take your tests?

No, there's no limit at all. KnowNow is specifically designed for frequent testing in order to offer the best chance of identifying infectious individuals as early as possible.

We recommend that individuals are tested as regularly as possible to keep workplaces and communities safe. Depending on the scenario, we would recommend that testing is performed every 2-3 days, or even daily, depending on the scenario.

How frequently should employees or visitors be tested?

We recommend that individuals are tested as regularly as possible to keep workplaces, venues and communities safe.

It is important to remember that individuals can still go on to be exposed to the virus following a negative test result. Additionally, a high proportion of infectious people show no symptoms at all, and so regular testing is key to breaking the chain of transmission.

Depending on the scenario, we would recommend that testing is performed every 2-3 days, or daily, depending on the scenario.

Had COVID - 19 symptoms in the last 2 days? Apply here to help us make testing accessible to all.